The Marina was the first completely new British Leyland (BL) car after the merger between British Motor Holdings (BMH formerly BMC) and Leyland in 1968. The Maxi was the first new car BL launched in 1969, although it was developed under BMC.
After the merger, Sir Donald Stokes (later Baron Stokes) the Leyland Chairman became BL's Chairman. Stokes' most pressing problem was to recover business lost to Ford and Vauxhall.
His biggest concern was the lack of new models that BMH had in development. The five-door Maxi was close to launch, but there were no other new cars in the pipeline.
The Maxi was planned as a replacement for the 1.6 litre Morris Oxford and Austin Cambridge cars and their derivatives. But BMC did not want to take on the Cortina directly. Instead they made the Maxi a bigger car and positioned it more up-market than the Cortina.
The Maxi had innovations, such a hatchback body style and a five speed gearbox. But it was poorly executed. Its cable gear linkage did not work well and the design was very plain and uninspiring.
Stokes wanted BL to produce a new car which would directly challenge the market-leading Ford Cortina. The BL board had already heard that a new larger Cortina was planned for 1971. They were also concerned about the Vauxhall Viva and a new car planned by Rootes, that turned out to be the Avenger. BL's range left a huge gap between the Austin/Morris 1100/1300 and larger cars such as the Austin 1800, Austin Maxi and the older Morris Oxford/Austin Cambridge.
All BMC's recent models were front-wheel drive. They appealed to buyers looking for technically advanced cars, but this left a large section of the market to competitors.
The fleet market (company cars) was also not well served by BL. In 1969 the fleet market was two fifths of all new cars. Fleet owners wanted conventional rear-wheel drive cars, believing them to be simpler and cheaper to maintain.
BL's executive team thought that C Class cars (ie Cortina sized cars) would be 60% of the market in the 1970s. So they needed a new car. It had to look up-to-the-minute, but technically it could be less advanced.
So the Marina was to be a conventional rear-wheel drive car with a modern and stylish body. The complete opposite to what BMC had been doing, but exactly the formula that was successful for Ford and Vauxhall.
Harry Webster, formerly from Triumph, was BL's Technical Director. In 1968 he was given the task of bringing the Marina to market for the 1970 Motor Show - an unheard of timescale.
The Marina would have to take the place of two conventiontal cars in BL's range, the Morris Minor and the Morris Oxford/Austin Cambridge saloons. Like the Cortina, it would need to have a range of engine sizes and trim levels.
The project was codenamed ADO28 (Austin Drawing Office 28). The car's name was chosen as it began with 'M' and sounded good with Morris. The planning team considered Monaco, Machete (yes that's right!), Mamba, Maori, Matelo, Musketeer, Major, Mirage and Mistral. Marina was easily the most popular choice.
Webster wanted to shorten the development cycle. So he wanted to use as many parts from existing cars as possible. The Marina's front suspension came from the Morris Minor. Its gearbox was from the Triumph 1300/1500 range. There were two engine sizes: 1.3 litre and 1.8 litre. The 1.3 litre cars had the 1275cc A-series engine which powered the Austin/Morris 1300 range. The 1.8 litre cars used the B series engine from the Austin 1800 and MGB.
The stalk mounted controls for the windscreen wipers, washers and lights were taken from Triumph models. They were considered advanced at the time.
The styling was meant to present two distinct cars - a coupé and a saloon. The coupé was aimed at young buyers looking for something stylish. The saloon was also meant to be stylish, but targeted at families.
With the fleet market in mind, the new car was to have a large boot. This was their big gripe with the Austin/Morris 1100 compared to the Ford Cortina.
The designer was former Ford stylist, Roy Haynes. He produced a design for the new car in April 1968. BL also approached Farina and Michelotti in August 1968. Both these Italian stylists had links with BL. Farina designed the Austin A40 and Morris Oxford/Austin Cambridge. Michelotti designed most of Triumph's cars, including the Spitfire, Herald, TR4 and the Triumph 2000.
After looking at all three designs, BL chose Haynes' original design.
Unlike BMC's badge engineering policy, the Marina was to be a Morris only. There was no Austin version. Stokes decided to split BL's two main marques. Austin was to sell technically advanced front-wheel drive cars and Morris conventional rear-wheel drive cars. Morris dealers would sell the Marina and Austin dealers the Maxi. Both chains of dealers would sell the Mini.
BL invited members of the press to a pre-launch in Cannes in early 1971. Journalists Jeff Daniels and Doug Nye were given a 1.8TC to try. They found the car to be dangerous. Excessive understeer resulted in the car ending up on the wrong side of the road on a tight bend. Daniels contacted Harry Webster and persuaded him to rethink the design. Webster made a last minute fix to the front suspension on the 1.8 litre cars.  The 1.3 litre cars, with a lighter engine, handled reasonably well.
With this incident resolved, the Marina was well-received by the motoring press. Julian Mounter, writing in 'The Times' in April 1971, described the Marina as 'excellent'. He liked the 1.3 litre cars best of all. 
My wife remembers the local launch of the Marina on Tuesday 27 April 1971 at The Morris Garages, St Aldate's, Oxford. Playing on the 'marina' theme, the dealership turned the showroom into a shallow pool. The Morris Marinas were floating on raised platforms. She remembers an orange coloured saloon (Blaze) on one of these platforms.
How well did the Marina do in the market?
Customers liked the cars too and initially BL found it hard to keep up with demand. Marina sales peaked at 115,000 in 1973. In that year the Marina was Britain's third best selling car. Although it sold reasonably well, the Marina never beat the Cortina in sales. Although it outsold the Maxi by a factor of two in most years of the 1970s. Stokes did get it right with the Marina.
Taken across the whole of the 1970s, the Morris Marina was the fourth best selling car and BL's second best seller behind the Mini, so it did not do too badly.
Buyers chose the Marina mainly for value for money. This was probably because although BL did very little development of the cars since the 1971 launch, they did regularly upgrade the trim and features of the models to keep them looking fresh and to offer good value compared to the Ford Cortina which Ford did actively develop in the 1970s.
BL's market research showed that many buyers chose the Marina because of value for money and economy. Once they had the car they also rated its comfort and roominess
How did the Marina stack up against the competition?
The Marina's main rivals were the Ford Cortina, the Hilman Avenger and the Vauxhall Viva. How did they compare?
These figures compare the 1.3 Marina De-luxe saloon with the Cortina 1.3L and the Hilman Avenger 1250 De-luxe.
|Top speed (mph)||82||85||81|
Was the Marina a bad car?
The Morris Marina has hardly had a good press recently, but what did people think at the time?
The most scientific way I can think of accessing this is to look at second hand values. How did a Marina compare with its rival the Cortina? If it was such a bad car we would have expected to see heavy discounts on new models and second hand values plummeting.
|Marina 1.3 Deluxe||Cortina 1300L|
|Cost 1971 (£)||921||740|
|Value 1976 (£)||963||605|
|Marina 1.8 Super Deluxe||Cortina 1600L|
|Cost 1971 (£)||1033||835|
|Value 1976 (£)||1074||805|
Source: Motorists Guide, December 1976. Prices are new prices in 1971 compared with 'First Class' prices for 1976.
Inflation in the 1970s helped used cars hold their value because the value of money was going down. The Marina held its value better than the Cortina. So no one thought it was a dud back in the 1970s.
The problem with the Marina was that it was a rushed job to begin with and it was given very little development effort throughout its life from 1971 to 1984. People's memories are clouded with pictures of out-of-date cars competing with better engineered products.
The Marina in motorsport
A test of a car's ability is how it performed on the racing and rally circuits. The Marina's record is impressive.
A Morris Marina 1.3 Coup´, driven by Brian Culcheth and Willy Cave, won its class at the 1971 RAC Rally and finished twentieth overall. The car was prepared by BL's Special Tuning Department headed by Basil Wales.  It was capable of 105bhp (compared to 60bhp) for the standard Marina 1.3. The Special Tuning Department managed to get 130 bhp out of the Marina 1.3 in later developments.
Culcheth was impressed with the Marina's handling and the light weight of the rally-prepared car. 
Culcheth did even better in the 1972 Cyprus Rally. He finished second overall with co-driver Johnstone Syer. The pair entered the following year and finished sixth in a Marina.
The rally-prepared cars were always 1.3. They avoided the handling issues of the bigger engined car. It is a pity BL did not market a tuned version of the 1.3 engine in a production car. But the Special Tuning Department did sell off-the-shelf tuning kits for several BL cars, including the Marina (see below).
BL discussed making a high performance version with the aluminium Rover 3.5 litre V8 with the March racing team. The idea was to sell a specially tuned March Marina, similar to the Lotus Cortina. Unfortunately the plans came to nothing.
Marina tuning kits
BL's Special Tuning Department offered the following tuning kits for the 1.3 and 1.8 Marinas. They were mainly aimed at amateur and professional racing enthusiasts.
Stage I tuning kit
The Stage I tuning kit comprised twin carburettors and inlet manifolds. Tuning beyond Stage I invalidated the warranty. But the Special Tuning Department also offered:
- Polished cylinder head
- Oil cooler kits
- Stiffer rear springs and shock absorbers
- Lightweight bucket seats
- Glass fibre doors, bonnet and boot
Tuning for the BBC Wheelbase RAC Rally car, driven by Culcheth and Cave in the 1971 RAC Rally, included a modified camshaft and pistons, lightweight alloy wheels, oil cooler, sump guard, and competition brake linings.
The car itself, registered AOX 705K, still survives. However, it is now registered with a different number ending in R. 
Morris Marina - advertisting
- 'The new Morris Marina beauty with brains behind it (1971)
- 'Marina you just can't beat it' (1974)
- 'Marina keeps its promise' (1974)
- 'Great range, great value' (1975 for Marina 2)
- 'We haven't lost our sense of values' (1978) (*)
- 'Styled in Italy, Built in Britain' (1980 - Morris Ital)
(*) This echoes previous advertising from Morris which suggested value for money. For example 'Pounds, shillings and sense' from the 1950s.
In 1978 BL screened an advert for the new 1.7 litre Marina featuring Robin Nedwell and Geoffrey Davies who both played in the sitcom 'Doctor in the House'. They were two golfers boasting about their new cars. They both bought a Tara green saloon with sporty features. It turns out they both bought exactly same model.
In 1979 and 1981, BL hired The Two Ronnies (Corbett and Barker) to advertise their range. In the first sketch Ronnie Barker plays a salesman and Ronnie Corbett is a customer. Ronnie Corbett is a gangster who has just got out of prison. Ronnie Barker shows him the full range of BL cars including the Mini, Allegro, Maxi, Princess and Marina.
In 1981 Ronnie Corbett plays a tax inspector checking up on a rich tax payer who claims to be poor, but has just bought four new cars with BL's Double Bonus scheme.
Why is the Marina rare today?
Most cars from the 1960s and earlier were generally regarded as classics quite quickly. In some cases before they were even ten years old. Cars from the 1970s, aside from obvious classics such as MGs, although those with the rubber bumpers faired less well, were preserved. However, bread and butter saloons from the 1970s raised eyebrows at classic car clubs. It took some time before the naff image of the decade finally turned into retro chic. This means that some of the ultimate "naff classics", such as the Austin Allegro with its quadric steering wheel, were preserved just before it was too late. This left more ordinary cars such as the Morris Marina out in the cold - often quite literally. I would not be surprised, however, for a new retro craze to start for these now rare beasts!
First series 1971-75
The first Marina range launched in 1971.
There were two body styles, a saloon and a coupé. Unusually, the coupé was less expensive than the saloon. It was treated as a two-door saloon, although the body was different. BL added an estate in 1972.
The Marina had two trim levels: De-luxe and Super De-luxe. There were two engines, a 1.3 and a 1.8 litre.
The range was topped by the 'TC' with a 1.8 litre engine with twin carburettors. It was available as a saloon or coupé.
The full line up was:
|Model||Price||In today's money|
|1.3 litre Coupé De-luxe||£923||£9300|
|1.3 litre Coupé Super De-luxe||£955||£9600|
|1.3 litre Saloon De-luxe||£962||£9700|
|1.3 litre Saloon Super De-luxe||£995||£10000|
|1.8 litre Coupé De-luxe||£995||£10000|
|1.8 litre Coupé Super De-luxe||1040||£10500|
|1.8 litre Saloon De-luxe||£1034||£10400|
|1.8 litre Saloon Super De-luxe||£1080||£10900|
|1.8 litre TC Coupé||£1138||£11500|
|1.8 litre TC Saloon||£1177||£11900|
The De-luxe car had rubber mats on the floor instead of carpets and basic style vinyl seats.
The Super De-luxe car had additional chrome mouldings around the wheel arches and around the bottom of the windows. It also had chrome wheel trims as well as hub caps. Inside, the Super De-luxe had pile carpeting and a different style of vinyl seats. It also had simulated wood finish around the instruments and part of the dashboard. Unusually for this era the Super De-luxe had a tachometer.
In addition to the Super De-luxe spec, the TC cars had a stainless steel sill moulding and a folding arm rest in the centre of the seating in the rear of the car.
The 1.8 litre cars were distinguished by a colour co-ordinated grill with a black surround. The 1.3 litre cars had a slatted chrome grill. The TC had its own unique grill, similar to the 1.8 car, but with 'TC' in the centre.
The De-luxe had drum brakes all round. The Super De-luxe and TC had disc brakes on the front wheels. The TC also had servo-assisted brakes.
Wheels and tyres
The De-luxe had cross-ply tyres as standard, the other two models had radial tyres. Additionally the TC had stylish wider wheels without hub caps.
The TC had reversing lamps, a cigar lighter and twin horns fitted as standard.
Specification and performance
|1.3 Coupé||1.8 Saloon||1.8TC|
|Turning circle||31 ft||31 ft|
|Length||163 in||166 in|
|Height||55 in||56 in|
|Width||64 in||64 in|
|Wheelbase||96 in||96 in|
The first change to the lineup was a 1.8 litre estate car launched in 1972. The estate was only available in Super De-luxe trim and cost £1236.
In July 1974 the 1.3 cars got exterior mirrors, hazard warning lights and rear heated windows. In addition the Super models got reversing lights and cigar lighters. The 1.8 litre cars got the same changes, plus servo-assisted brakes and twin horns.
In addition the TC cars got a vinyl roof, tinted windows, coach lines, nylon seat facings and head restraints.
Marina 2 - 1975-78
In 1975 BL relaunched the Marian as the Marina 2.
The most obvious change was a new chrome grill with a black surround on all models. The more expensive models had driving lamps set into the grill.
A major mechanical change was to fit front and rear anti-roll bars to all saloon cars. This significantly improved the handling of the cars.
The interior was also upgraded with new trim and a new dashboard.
The 1.8 DeLuxe was dropped. There was a a new model, the Special, with a vinyl roof and better trim. At the top of the range, the 1.8 litre TC Coupé became the Marina GT and the 1.8 litre TC saloon was badged as the range topping HL.
The Estate had Super trim. In the brochure the two-door cars were no longer coupés, although this name returned in the Mk3
The model line up was:
- 1.3 DeLuxe - 2 and 4 door
- 1.3 Super - 2 and 4 door
- 1.8 Super - 2 and 4 door
- 1.8 Estate - 5 door only
- 1.8 Special - 2 and 4 door
- GT - 2 door only
- HL - 4 door
The differences between the DeLuxe and Super were minor. The Super had reclining seats with different seat facings.
In 1976 a 1.3 litre estate was added to the range.
The Special brought the Marina in line with other 1970s' cars by offering a vinyl roof. It also had:
- Simulated wood trim
- Nylon seats
- Driving lamps
- Electric clock
Recognising the more sporty appeal of the two-door cars, the GT was only available as a two door.
The GT had the 1.8 litre engine with twin carburettors. It had the Special's vinyl roof, but also had a more luxurious interior with reclining seats and a centre console. There were also two ashtrays, one each for front and rear passengers.
Outside there as was matt black trim and matt black stripes.
The HL was essentially the four-door GT, but branded as an executive car. The Cortina 2000E may have been the inspiration. Instead of the matt black trim on the GT, there was shiny chrome and more restrained looking stripes on the outside of the car.
Marina 1.3 Special LE
In 1978 BL offered a 1.3 litre special as a limited edition. It had some classic striped 1970s' seats and the vinyl roof from the 1.8 Special.
Marina Mk3 1978-80
In late 1978 BL upgraded the Marina for one last time.
They replaced the 1.8 litre B-series engine with the new 1.7 litre O-series used in the Austin Princess 2 from July 1978. The new engine replaced the B-series in single and twin carburettor form. This saw the end of the sporty Marinas. The O-series engine had better performance and fuel economy than the single carburettor B-series. It gave 30.1 mpg in town driving, compared to 26.1 mpg for the old engine. 
There was a general upgrade of all cars in the Marina range. All models got twin driving lamps and a front spoiler. A subtle change was one piece windows dispensing with the quarter lights in the outgoing cars.
There were new chrome bumpers with rubber inserts for the L and higher models. The base model got matt black bumpers with metal inserts. All cars had revised rear lamp clusters.
The interior of all models had an uprgrade with new trim, steering wheels, switches and controls.
The new cars also got new halogen driving lamps and rear fog lamps. The range was also simplified:
The base model was sold as saloon, coupé and estate. You could choose the 1300 or the 1700 engine.
It was basic and still had vinyl seats. There were also new wheels with black plastic hub caps.
The Marina base model competed against cars such as the Ford Escort 1300, the Vauxhall Viva 1300L and the Datsun 120Y GLS.
The Marina L was sold in all body styles and engine sizes. It was a bit more luxurious with nylon seat facings, smarter wheels and a vinyl roof on the Coupé only. The coupé has a vinyl roof because BL dropped it from the HL range.
The Marina L targeted the Escort GL, the Cortina L, the Renault 12TL, Colt Lancer GL and the Vauxhall Viva GLS.
The HL was only sold as a saloon or an estate. There was no direct replacement for the Marina GT from the Marina 2.
The HL spec included a vinyl roof on the saloon, more chrome trim and smart new wheels. Inside the reclining seats were trimmed in velour and head restraints were fitted. There was a nicely trimed and well equipped fascia with a push button radio fitted as standard.
The HL's competitors were the Cortina GL, the Vauxhall Cavalier GL, the Crysler Avenger GLS and the Crysler Alpine S.
The full range was:
- 1300 Coupé
- 1300 Saloon
- 130 Estate
- 1300L Coupé
- 1300L Saloon
- 1300L Estate
- 1300HL Saloon
- 1300HL Estate
- 1700 Saloon
- 1700 Estate
- 1700L Saloon
- 1700L Estate
- 1700HL Saloon
- 1700L Estate
In 1980 BL replaced the Marina with the Ital. The Ital, as the name and the adverts boasted, was styled in Italy. The styling work was by Ital Design of Turin. Their previous work included the Lotus Esprit, the first VW Golf and the Audi 80. Ironic then that two Italian stylists' designs were turned down for the original Marina in 1968.
The styling makeover gave the Ital new square halogen headlamps and a squared off body. It looked like a car from the 1980s rather than the 1970s.
Cash-strapped BL spent just £5 million on the Ital. They retained many of the Marina's mechanical parts.
The 1.3 litre cars did get a new engine, the same one that went into the 1.3 litre Mini Metros. The 1.7 litre cars continued with the O-series engine.
The Ital was only available as a saloon or estate. BL discontinued the Marina Coupé. The Ital's line up was.
- Ital L
- Ital HL
- Ital HLS
- Ital L Estate
- Ital HL Estate
- Ital HLS Estate
Austin Morris Van and Pick up
BL used the Marina as the basis for a new Austin/Morris van and pick-up. Launched in 1972 the vans were originally badged as Austin or Morris. By 1975, some badges said 'Austin Morris'.
There was a 7cwt (seven hundred weight) and a 10cwt van and a pick-up. All three were based on the Morris Marina body.
The 7cwt van could be supplied with a 1098cc engine or a 1275cc engine. The 10cwt van had the 1275cc engine.
The van and pick-up had a much simpler facia with a single instrument binnacle similar to that found in the Mini.
 'British Leyland - The truth about the cars' by Jeff Daniels, published 1980, Osprey, pages 109-110
 'The Leyland Papers' by Graham Turner, published 1971 by Eyre & Spottiswoode, page 188
 'British Leyland - The truth about the cars' by Jeff Daniels, published 1980, Osprey, pages 112-113
 'Range of ten models in British Leyland's challenge to rivals', by Julian Mounter, published in The Times 27 April 1971, page 5
 'Morris range undergoes revision' by Peter Waymark, published in The Times 20 September 1978, page 3
 'BMC Competitions Department Secrets' by Peter Browning, Marcus Chambers, Stuart Turner, published by Veloce 2006, page 181
 'British Leyland may return to world motor sport' by Julian Mounter, published in The Times, 26 April 1972, page 2
Your comments on the Morris Marina
"i bought a second hand marina from a mate in the 80s it was on the road for approx 5 minuets i drove it round a sharp bend and the steering rack broke and i crashed into a garage wall. the car was a right off the wall did not look to good either. the car cost me £85-00 the wall cost me £25-00 happy days" paul beasley
dad owned 3 marinas 1 coupe and two saloons dad was orignally a ford man but those marinas were reliable and economical for a family man to run we drove the breath of uk in them never let us down ..i only remember a trunion breaking once 5 miles from home we repaired it at side of road.today my morris minor runs a 1275 marina engine i say they were as good as any car of the time people cant wait to slag of b.m,c more fool them i say long live marina