60s and 70s Beer Guide
Changing fashions ruled beer drinking in the 50s, 60s and 70s. First bottled pale ale challenged draught mild as the Nation's favourite drink. Then a few years later, everyone was drinking draught keg bitter, with Watneys Red Barrel the best known brand.
Lager was the drink of the 70s. The hot summer of 1976 provided a reason to try the beverage, but tastes were changing. In 1971 there was a backlash against the relentless spread of keg bitter and lager when CAMRA, the Campaign for Real Ale, formed. In the latter part of the seventies there was a resurgence of some traditional brews; real ale, though, still remained a minority taste.
From mild to bitter
Mild was the working man's drink for the first half of the twentieth century. The only choice was between mild and stout; bitter was a luxury. In 1900 best bitter was almost unknown and in 1929 it was still only a tiny fraction total beer sales.
At the start of the sixties, mild was the dominant beer. Around 40% of the output of Bass Charrington, Britain's largest brewer, was mild. By 1967 this had fallen to 30%. Mild was losing favour, though it was the cheapest beer. It did have strongholds in the Midlands (notably M & B Mild), but the majority chose best bitter.
Best bitter on draught and its bottled equivalent, best pale ale, were the favourite beers of the 60s. Pale ale was sold as a premium beer; it was a popular luxury.
From cask to keg
Keg bitter is pasteurised to stop any fermentation. Carbon dioxide is added to give the beer sparkle. The pressure of carbon dioxide is used to draw the beer up from the cellar. So keg beer does not need a traditional long handled beer pump.
The first keg beer was Watneys Red Barrel, developed in the 30s. The big brewers though, did not heavily promote keg bitter until the late 50s. The first brewer to use the term keg and to promote sales of keg beer was Flowers (later taken over by Whitbread). Many of the others followed suit and each launched their own brand of keg bitter: Worthington 'E', Whitbread Tankard, Ind Coope Double Diamond, Youngers Tartan and Courage Tavern.
Sales of keg beer increased steadily throughout the sixties. In 1960 it was 1% of the total beer market, by 1965 7% and by 1971 18%. Keg beer was most popular with the young. It was the natural choice for the new themed pubs and disco pubs of the 60s. Keg bitter was more expensive than traditional cask conditioned ales and was marketed as a premium brand.
There was a tendency for brewers to reduce the strength and original gravity (a measure of the proportion of ingredients, hops, barley etc to water) of cask beers. The keg beers were the best the brewery had to offer so there was no need to spend as much on the cask conditioned beers. Throughout the sixties people suspected that that beer was getting weaker; they were right.
By the latter part of the sixties, carbon dioxide was often added to cask beers as well; they were drawn up from the cellar under pressure in much the same way as keg beer. For the drinker at the bar, there was little to choose between them. The more discerning opted for keg.
Bottled and canned beer
The rise of keg bitter in the sixties stopped a trend that had begun after the War of increasing sales of bottled beer. It even appeared that sales of bottled beer might overtake draught beer. Reasons for choosing it over traditional ales were consistency, brightness, a clean palette and sparkle. Keg bitter provided all these qualities at a cheaper price.
Canned beer was in its infancy in the late 50s. Ind Coopes Long Life was one of the first. The brewer picked up on concerns about the quality of cask ales and claimed Long Life was brewed for the can and never varied. Canned beer sales increased throughout the sixties, but did not become important until the seventies. Watneys Party Seven was a new take on canned beer.
Before the 60s, the supply of beer had been regional. There were a few exceptions with bottled Guinness, Bass and Worthington sold throughout the country. In the sixties other national names emerged, namely Double Diamond (bottled), Mackeson Stout (bottled) and draught and bottled Watneys Red Barrel. Watneys Red Barrel was making inroads into the free trade. Double Diamond, Bass Worthington and most notably Guinness, were becoming increasingly available as draught. The success of Guinness encouraged Watneys to compete with Colonel Murphy's Stout. After a test marketing campaign, they abandoned it and stocked draught Guinness in Watneys' houses instead.
By the end of the sixties, lager too was more popular. Draught Carlsberg was available at Watneys' pubs and Whitbread had linked up with Heineken. Sales of lager, though, did not become significant until the 70s.
Strong ales were often sold in nip bottles (one third of a pint). The most famous was Tennant's Gold Label; it was in the Guinness Book of Records as the strongest beer on regular sale in the UK. Later it was brewed as Whitbread Gold Label. 70s advertisements told drinkers that it was "Strong as a double Scotch, less than half the price". It is still available today.
The 70s keg beer and lager
At the beginning of the 70s, the most popular brands of keg bitter dominated British beer drinking. They were more expensive than cask bitters, so people must have liked the taste or bought the advertising.
Advertising of keg bitters made extravagant claims. Whitbread Tankard was supposed to help you excel, how, was not made clear. Beer had long been advertised as a drink to improve heath. The "Guinness is Good for You" and "Guinness for Strength" campaigns are famous. Was a touch of parody intended?
Rivals made equally bold claims. Worthington 'E' was "the taste that satisfies". Courage Tavern was "What your right arm's for". Double Diamond "worked wonders".
Keg bitter's popularity was challenged in the 70s by lager. Sales of lager increased from only 2% of the market in 1965 to 20% in 1975.
Lager had been sold in Britain long before the 60s. It was brewed here as early as the 1890s, but was a very small part of the beer market. It had a reputation as a ladies' drink. When mixed with lime it was considered as an alternative shandy.
Today's well known brands of lager were introduced in Britain from the 50s. The brewery magnate E P Taylor brought Carling Black Label to Britain, from Canada, in 1953. Starting from small beginnings, brewed under licence by the tiny Hope and Anchor Brewery, a series of mergers left Carling Black Label part of the Bass Charrington empire.
The other big brewers introduced their own brands. Guinness launched Harp Irish Lager in 1960. Whitbread signed an agreement to import Heineken in 1961; Watneys linked up with Carlsberg in 1968.
Whitbread brewed Heineken under licence in the UK in 1968. The Whitbread directors thought a weaker version of the Dutch beer would sell better - they were right. Later the Belgian beer, Stella Artois, joined the Whitbread stable as their premium lager.
It was the long hot summer of 1976 that firmly established Britain's taste for lager. Cool and refreshing, it was the beer to beat the drought. By the end of the decade, lager took 29% of beer sales.
There are many reasons for the rise in the popularity of lager. Package holidays in Europe gave people a chance to try lager and they associated it with relaxation and warmer climates. It goes better with more exotic food. Continental dishes - French and Italian - were popular in the 70s, as were Chinese and Indian food and there is no better accompaniment to a curry than a pint of lager.
From keg to cask
The aggressive promotion of keg bitters finally resulted in a backlash. CAMRA, the Campaign for Real Ale, was founded in 1971.
In the 70s, sales of cask beers began to rise as there was a growing appreciation for the traditional methods of brewing. It is a testament to the success of CAMRA that the "classic" keg bitters of the sixties are now extinct.
Add your comments on 60s and 70s beer
Cheers!" Jules 14/03/2011
Thanks" Tom 14/08/2011
These were beautiful ales that went well mixed with Bitter or Mild;
Dear oh Dear changing times and not for the better" Stevie D 18/01/2012
I think my first sip of real ale may have been a pint of Wethereds in the Crown and Treaty, Uxbridge. In about 1976. I would have been about 15 (But I must have looked older in my fashionable platform soles)" Ian Bucket-Belly 23/03/2012
"Real Ale".......A touch of the "Kings clothes" methinks." Ray 18/04/2012
A Chinese is lager over bitter in Birkenhead/Wirral and is known as a Golden over the water in Liverpool" Alfie 17/07/2012
I did work in a pub briefly which sold Trophy and Whit Best, and compared with the ales I now drink (draught, bottled and home-brewed) I seem to remember a bit of a lack of taste... Apologies if this is heresy!" Ian 03/08/2012
Anyway, that's enough ranting for one day - my friend Justin's just arrived with some sushi and a DIVINE Sauvignon Blanc........." roger 18/10/2012
However, the word "crat" (now "krat") also originated at one of these modern ale festivals." Lemmy 04/01/2013
and had wothington e
in youth i recall the advert was
WORTHING E THE BEER NATURAL BEER IS HERE
CAN YOU CONFIRM" mallsmith 11/01/2013
Has anyone got one the could be made available for us to refit in the hole in the Wardroom Cabinet. Cheers. Mike, one of the volunteers working onboard." Mike Fleet. 22/02/2013
1970 was my Time, A Great Pint of Ind Coope Mild followed by a few More,They then brought out Drum Mild, Cost More of Course, Coolers, Hate the Dam things, If I want an Ice berg I know where to go, but not in my Pint, Ind Coope was my favourite, Mild or Brown & Mild, Double D Came out a few years later, Ok ish, Get the Booze Back in Pubs not Corner Shops ect,, As for Courage back then,Well you needed Courage to drink it,
Lets Wind the Clock Back, I will even drink a Pint of Courage
We went to the Courage Brewer, Thats the old one years ago, had a Tour ect then to the Bar, Yes it was Courage But We drunk it Dry that Night, Had to leave at 10.30 Crazy
Good old days though" Tony 03/09/2013
My tipple of choice was MacKuen's Scotch Ale or a Guinness. back then." Bob 07/10/2013
I have seen it in some pubs around Oxford. Greene King also brew a cask conditioned mild, Green King XX Mild. I haven't tried it though. See http://www.greeneking.co.uk/index.asp?pageid=75 for more details. Best regards" Steven 20/11/2013
Sorry this has taken me some time to track down, but yes Stella Artois was on sale in some Whitbread outlets in the 70s. Whitbread talked initially to Artois back in the 60s but eventually did a deal with Heineken to brew draught lager in Britain. They also sold full strength bottled Heineken as a premium beer, but found that there was confusion with the cheaper (and weaker) draught version. So they went back to Artois in the 70s and started selling bottled Stella as a premium larger. I'm not sure of the exact date, but I think from around the middle of the 70s." steven 31/12/2013
A popular joke at the time was, "do you have any Colt 45?"
"Okay, I'll have a Luger and lime instead"" Eddie (Leeds) 27/02/2014
Any idea ???????????" Bob 18/04/2014
Yes, I remember drinking 'Gauntlet' in Sheffield in the 70's. Some of the big breweries were there including Whitbread ( they sold draught Gold Label!),
Stones, Wards and some smaller local ones. Our particular favourite with the lads was draught Double Diamond. Yes, I know the real ale supporters would rubbish this beer but I remember when we rubbished real ale supporters! What goes around comes around, I guess." Mike 19/06/2014
Liverpool" Gary 25/06/2014
I remember Castlemaine xxxx all too well as it used to give me one hell of a hangover. Woke up many a morning after with the thought 'never again!'." Jim 28/07/2014
Watneys Red thats the best fing yuv said..
Fullers was also around but I was advised to steer clear of it.First return to the UK will be for me next year and reading all the above I'm shattered that there is no real English beer to be had.Pint was 1/11pence." Rex Seacombe 26/06/2015
Traditional English (and Belgian) Ales have about the shortest shelf life. Dry hopping and multiple brown and stewed (crystal) malts make for a beer that has a shelf life of six months. Such beers should be delivered, in casks, from brewery directly to the pub, to ensure it is fresh." Beer Guzzler 22/07/2015
popular when I joined the R.N. in '49 I was still
enjoying it when I left in '57. What was it?" s. adams 03/09/2015
My favourite was Ind Coopes Mild Ale, and Tolly Cobbolds CobNut brown ale." Terry Quinton 12/09/2015
Love the site. Thanks for some happy and "mildly" unhappy memories from my early drinking days in the 60s and 70s. Now a confirmed real ale consumer but what happened to the days when you could ask for a light and bitter and get a pint plus ++++. Ah happy days.
Pete T" Pete T 14/02/2016
cant say I have seen it recently ,
I don't drink larger type beers having grown up with, Fremlins best bitter and Tuska along with Bob lucks cider,[all from Kent] and Alton best bitter together with Alton Directors special reserve [which became Courage best bitter and Courage directors both now brewed under licence by Wells and co of Bedford not quite up to the original but acceptable] I still enjoy going round the country looking for the born again local brews." brickwizard 30/03/2016
Watney: Red Barrel, replaced by Red (which was a failure). Brewed in Putney.
Truman: Ben Truman. Brewed in Brick Lane, Whitechapel
Whitbread: Tankard. Brewed in Luton (in the City until 1967)
Ind Coope: Double Diamond. Brewed in Romford.
Bass-Charrington. Worthington E. Brewed in Burton or Mitchells & Butlers in Birmingham. (In Mile End until late Sixties)
S&N. Tartan. Brewed in Edinburgh.
Courage. Tavern. Brewed at south end of Tower Bridge.
Youngs. Youngs Ram Keg Bitter (Yes! It existed. It had a sheep in a perspex cube as a bar fitting.) Brewed in Wandworth.
The best beers in London were in bottle. All the above brewers had a full range, the fullest and best being Watneys: Pale Ale, Strong Pale Ale, Brown Ale, Strong Brown Ale, Dark Barley Wine, Pale Barley Wine, Milk Stout. Favourites: Watney Stingo Dark Barley Wine, Whitbread Poacher Brown (strong), Worthington White Shield (Bass), Courage Imperial Russian Stout.
The first big brand lager in London was by Guinness, called Harp.
Bass took over two London breweries in the early Sixties, Charrington and Wenlock. The latter's pubs had the right to sell bottled beer from Tolly Cobbold in Ipswich, and their Pale Ale was still to be found in some in the early Eighties." Basil 07/08/2016
One BIG advantage of thin lagers is the big reduction in numbers of whopper beer bellies. I now only drink my own fully attenuated apple cider." Rowan 13/09/2016
My mates tell me it was the other way round and my memory is failing." John Godwin 08/10/2016
I'm from Sunderland, and had the great pleasure of working for Vaux Breweries for a shade over nineteen years, from 2 April 1979 until 1 May 1998. I was never involved in the production process, as I worked in IT, but I WAS selected for the taste-testing panel (it's a tough job, etc.) at a time when you first had to go through a blind tasting session to prove the sensitivity of your palette! Rightly or wrongly, then, I reckon that entitles me to pontificate a bit! :-)
I've been boozing in and around Sunderland for well over thirty years. Although I never used to mind lager (and can even remember a period during the early eighties when the landlord of the Royal Marine in Sea Road, Fulwell, which was then a Tetley's pub, kept an especially nice pint of Skol), I've always preferred ale. I'm fortunate not to mind how it is brewed, cellared, or dispensed, and regardless of whether it is cask, keg, bottled, or canned, I could name you excellent ales, terrible ones, and all points in between. In my experience, however, most ales tend not to translate well from one form to another. For example, Vaux Double Maxim (a far superior bottled brown ale to a certain higher-profile rival I COULD mention, and still brewed today by a company that ex-Vaux employees, some of whom are known to me, founded) is fine in bottles and cans, but the cask version is comparatively poor.
Keg ale was to the fore at the start of my drinking 'career', and particular favourites of mine were Vaux Samson, McEwan's Best Scotch, Newcastle Exhibition (occasionally), Federation Special, Whitbread Trophy, and Bass Stones. Cask Bass ale was very rare in those days, but nice when you could get it, and after the eventual cask ale renaissance, good old stalwarts like Theakston's Old Peculier, Greene King Abbot Ale (the stronger Abbot Reserve is also very nice), Ruddle's County, and Flowers' Original became part of my staple diet!
Sadly, with the exception of Stones, all of the keg ales I have mentioned are no more, and have largely been replaced by John Smith's and/or Boddington's bitter, both of which I detest (I used to enjoy SAMUEL Smith's 'Old Brewery' bitter and bottled brown ale, but there was only one Samuel Smith's pub that I knew of in this area, and I'm pretty sure it no longer exists bloody typical). An earlier poster mention that the Rosedene pub in Sunderland still sells Trophy and, in fact, that is where I enjoyed my last pint of a that wonderful brew. Sadly, I am writing this two days after a friend of mine, a regular in the Rosedene, informed me that the Trophy has been taken out and replaced by... you've guessed it... John Smith's! Bloody sacrilege!
As for cask ale, I think it has been a victim of its own success, in that too many micro-breweries are jumping on the bandwagon to produce what amounts to glorified home-brew... and we all know how rank THAT can be! Most pubs seem to be going for a 'scatter-gun' approach regarding the choice on offer, too, resulting in a bewildering selection of Mickey Mouse ales you've never heard of and on the rare occasion that you DO find one you like, chances are that it will have been replaced by something else the next time you visit that particular pub!
I don't think I'd call it a 'success' of CAMRA at all that most classic keg ales are now extinct! Indeed, it's almost certainly thanks to that 'success' that the same can be said for many classic CASK ales, too!
Rant over! :-)" Kevin Snowdon 13/11/2016
Just been doing a belated bit of mental arithmetic, and realised that I've actually been boozing in and around Sunderland for over FORTY years! How quickly the time flies!
Of the new(er) breed of more mainstream cask ales, Sharp's Doom Bar has become a favourite of mine. The Forth in Newcastle keeps an especially nice pint.
As for most ales not translating well from one form of production or presentation to another, honourable mention must go to Abbot Ale, which I find to be every bit as full-flavoured and smooth in cans as it is on cask. If Greene King can achieve this, then surely anyone can, so I live in (probably forlorn) hope that Theakston's will one day pull off the same trick with Old Peculier, the over-gassed, bottled version of which bears no resemblance to what, for me, is THE 'cask ale from the gods'." Kevin Snowdon 13/11/2016
If you don't like beer you can still buy the likes of John Smiths or Tetleys Smooth pretty much everywhere so everyone is a winner ;)" ChorltonWheelie 03/01/2017
Imagine only relying on Watney's for their daily treat..." Real Ale Connoisseur 19/05/2017
of me remember It was a Bass house" Harry 23/06/2017
As a 25 year old ""colonial"" from Australia I learned quite a lot about beer at these places of employment. Yes,at that time my drink of choice was light and Balham, but I also learned to drink Guinness Draught which is still my favourite tipple." kevwen36 28/08/2017
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