60s and 70s Beer Guide
Changing fashions ruled beer drinking in the 50s, 60s and 70s. First bottled pale ale challenged draught mild as the Nation's favourite drink. Then a few years later, everyone was drinking draught keg bitter, with Watneys Red Barrel the best known brand.
Lager was the drink of the 70s. The hot summer of 1976 provided a reason to try the beverage, but tastes were changing. In 1971 there was a backlash against the relentless spread of keg bitter and lager when CAMRA, the Campaign for Real Ale, formed. In the latter part of the seventies there was a resurgence of some traditional brews; real ale, though, still remained a minority taste.
From mild to bitter
Mild was the working man's drink for the first half of the twentieth century. The only choice was between mild and stout; bitter was a luxury. In 1900 best bitter was almost unknown and in 1929 it was still only a tiny fraction total beer sales.
At the start of the sixties, mild was the dominant beer. Around 40% of the output of Bass Charrington, Britain's largest brewer, was mild. By 1967 this had fallen to 30%. Mild was losing favour, though it was the cheapest beer. It did have strongholds in the Midlands (notably M & B Mild), but the majority chose best bitter.
Best bitter on draught and its bottled equivalent, best pale ale, were the favourite beers of the 60s. Pale ale was sold as a premium beer; it was a popular luxury.
From cask to keg
Keg bitter is pasteurised to stop any fermentation. Carbon dioxide is added to give the beer sparkle. The pressure of carbon dioxide is used to draw the beer up from the cellar. So keg beer does not need a traditional long handled beer pump.
The first keg beer was Watneys Red Barrel, developed in the 30s. The big brewers though, did not heavily promote keg bitter until the late 50s. The first brewer to use the term keg and to promote sales of keg beer was Flowers (later taken over by Whitbread). Many of the others followed suit and each launched their own brand of keg bitter: Worthington 'E', Whitbread Tankard, Ind Coope Double Diamond, Youngers Tartan and Courage Tavern.
Sales of keg beer increased steadily throughout the sixties. In 1960 it was 1% of the total beer market, by 1965 7% and by 1971 18%. Keg beer was most popular with the young. It was the natural choice for the new themed pubs and disco pubs of the 60s. Keg bitter was more expensive than traditional cask conditioned ales and was marketed as a premium brand.
There was a tendency for brewers to reduce the strength and original gravity (a measure of the proportion of ingredients, hops, barley etc to water) of cask beers. The keg beers were the best the brewery had to offer so there was no need to spend as much on the cask conditioned beers. Throughout the sixties people suspected that that beer was getting weaker; they were right.
By the latter part of the sixties, carbon dioxide was often added to cask beers as well; they were drawn up from the cellar under pressure in much the same way as keg beer. For the drinker at the bar, there was little to choose between them. The more discerning opted for keg.
Bottled and canned beer
The rise of keg bitter in the sixties stopped a trend that had begun after the War of increasing sales of bottled beer. It even appeared that sales of bottled beer might overtake draught beer. Reasons for choosing it over traditional ales were consistency, brightness, a clean palette and sparkle. Keg bitter provided all these qualities at a cheaper price.
Canned beer was in its infancy in the late 50s. Ind Coopes Long Life was one of the first. The brewer picked up on concerns about the quality of cask ales and claimed Long Life was brewed for the can and never varied. Canned beer sales increased throughout the sixties, but did not become important until the seventies. Watneys Party Seven was a new take on canned beer.
Before the 60s, the supply of beer had been regional. There were a few exceptions with bottled Guinness, Bass and Worthington sold throughout the country. In the sixties other national names emerged, namely Double Diamond (bottled), Mackeson Stout (bottled) and draught and bottled Watneys Red Barrel. Watneys Red Barrel was making inroads into the free trade. Double Diamond, Bass Worthington and most notably Guinness, were becoming increasingly available as draught. The success of Guinness encouraged Watneys to compete with Colonel Murphy's Stout. After a test marketing campaign, they abandoned it and stocked draught Guinness in Watneys' houses instead.
By the end of the sixties, lager too was more popular. Draught Carlsberg was available at Watneys' pubs and Whitbread had linked up with Heineken. Sales of lager, though, did not become significant until the 70s.
Strong ales were often sold in nip bottles (one third of a pint). The most famous was Tennant's Gold Label; it was in the Guinness Book of Records as the strongest beer on regular sale in the UK. Later it was brewed as Whitbread Gold Label. 70s advertisements told drinkers that it was "Strong as a double Scotch, less than half the price". It is still available today.
The 70s keg beer and lager
At the beginning of the 70s, the most popular brands of keg bitter dominated British beer drinking. They were more expensive than cask bitters, so people must have liked the taste or bought the advertising.
Advertising of keg bitters made extravagant claims. Whitbread Tankard was supposed to help you excel, how, was not made clear. Beer had long been advertised as a drink to improve heath. The "Guinness is Good for You" and "Guinness for Strength" campaigns are famous. Was a touch of parody intended?
Rivals made equally bold claims. Worthington 'E' was "the taste that satisfies". Courage Tavern was "What your right arm's for". Double Diamond "worked wonders".
Keg bitter's popularity was challenged in the 70s by lager. Sales of lager increased from only 2% of the market in 1965 to 20% in 1975.
Lager had been sold in Britain long before the 60s. It was brewed here as early as the 1890s, but was a very small part of the beer market. It had a reputation as a ladies' drink. When mixed with lime it was considered as an alternative shandy.
Today's well known brands of lager were introduced in Britain from the 50s. The brewery magnate E P Taylor brought Carling Black Label to Britain, from Canada, in 1953. Starting from small beginnings, brewed under licence by the tiny Hope and Anchor Brewery, a series of mergers left Carling Black Label part of the Bass Charrington empire.
The other big brewers introduced their own brands. Guinness launched Harp Irish Lager in 1960. Whitbread signed an agreement to import Heineken in 1961; Watneys linked up with Carlsberg in 1968.
Whitbread brewed Heineken under licence in the UK in 1968. The Whitbread directors thought a weaker version of the Dutch beer would sell better - they were right. Later the Belgian beer, Stella Artois, joined the Whitbread stable as their premium lager.
It was the long hot summer of 1976 that firmly established Britain's taste for lager. Cool and refreshing, it was the beer to beat the drought. By the end of the decade, lager took 29% of beer sales.
There are many reasons for the rise in the popularity of lager. Package holidays in Europe gave people a chance to try lager and they associated it with relaxation and warmer climates. It goes better with more exotic food. Continental dishes - French and Italian - were popular in the 70s, as were Chinese and Indian food and there is no better accompaniment to a curry than a pint of lager.
From keg to cask
The aggressive promotion of keg bitters finally resulted in a backlash. CAMRA, the Campaign for Real Ale, was founded in 1971.
In the 70s, sales of cask beers began to rise as there was a growing appreciation for the traditional methods of brewing. It is a testament to the success of CAMRA that the "classic" keg bitters of the sixties are now extinct.
Beers from the past
There were more than 4,000 different brews available in the 60s, so we cannot list them all. This is a list of the most important ones.
Keg bitters on draught
- Worthington 'E'
- Ind Coope Double Diamond
- Whitbread Tankard
- Watneys Red Barrel
- Younger's Tartan Bitter
- Courage Tavern
- Flowers Keg Bitter
Some of these were not available for the whole of the period. I have added John Smith's because of its popularity today. It was very much a regional beer in the 60s.
- Bass Red Triangle
- Worthington IPA
- Ind Coope Bitter
- Worthington IPA
- Whitbread Bitter (60s)
- Whitbread Trophy (70s)
- Watneys Special
- Younger's Scotch Ale
- Courage Bitter
- Ansells Bitter
- Mitchells and Butler's Brew XI
- John Smith's (Tadcaster) Bitter
Retrowow reader Nathaneal remembers the TV adverts for Whitbread Trophy:
I have a strong memory of the advert on telly about "Whitbread, Big Head, Trophy Bitter, the pint that thinks its a quart. It's got the body, the body, that satisfies - It can't be modest, no matter how it tries!" Aye, those were the days, lad!
See UK television commercials 19551985 for the full text and some other classic adverts from the 50s to the 80s.
Most breweries in the 50s and 60s offered a mild. There were offerings from Green King, Greenall & Whitley, Charrington, Watneys, Whitbread, Courage, John Smith's, Ind Coope and Ansells amongst many others. One particular favourite for Midlands' drinkers was Mitchells and Butlers (M & B) Mild.
Best pale ales (bottled)
Bottled best pale ales were growing in popularity in the 50s. To a certain extent this growth was brought to an end when keg bitter was introduced. It offered similar characteristics for a cheaper price.
- Bass Red Triangle
- Ind Coope Double Diamond
- Worthington White Shield IPA
- Charrington Toby Ale
- Younger's No. 3 Scotch Ale
- Watneys Red Barrel (Export)
- Whitbread Pale Ale
- Whitbread (Flowers) Brewmaster
- Vaux Double Maxim
- Ansells Nut Brown
- Fremlins Double Elephant Brown Ale
- Greene King Burton Ale
- Whitbread Forest Brown
- Charrington/Hammonds Prize Medal
- Fremlins Elephant Light Ale
- Younger's Pale Ale
- Ushers India Pale Ale
- Whitbread Light Ale
- Mackeson (Whitbread)
- Watneys Cream Label
Often sold in nip bottles (one third of a pint), strong ales were gaining a following in the late sixties and early seventies. These are some favourites from the past.
- Whitbread Gold Label
- John Smith's Magnet Old Ale
- Younger's King of Ales
- Daniel Thwaites Old Dan
- Watneys Stingo
- Ind Coope Arctic Ale
Thanks to Mr L Prior for Ind Coope Arctic Ale:
"It was a rival to Gold Label and very similar. I just thought I might mention it. Ind Coope vanished like a lot of our famous breweries. My family used to work for them in Burton on Trent back before World War II. They took over Benskins in Watford in the 60s and I lived there and saw the demise of Benskins. I'm told the old Benskins best bitter recipe lives on in a micro brewery in Devon and it's known as Vale Best Bitter."Mr L. Prior
Lager gained in popularity throughout the 60s, but did not challenge draught bitter until the 70s. These are some of the lagers available in Britain in the 60s.
- Carling Black Label
- Harp Irish Lager
- Tennent's Lager (canned)
- Tuborg Green Label Pilsner
- Carlsberg Special Brew
- Stella Artois
- Carlsberg '68
- Holsten Pilsner
- Beck's Bier
The popularity of these latter brews increased substantially in the 80s and in some cases the 90s.
Can you buy it today?
As far as any of the more popular 60s keg's are concerned, the answer is no.
A good number of the most popular bottled pale ales are still available. Worthington White Shield IPA is available, as is Bass Red Triangle. I have also read that you can buy Double Diamond at Morrisons (although I have yet to find it!).
The one great discovery for me doing this research was Whitbread Gold Label Barley Wine. It is a strong beer sold in small cans (the cans were introduced in 1975). It has quite a sweet taste and is very pleasant - perfect for a night cap. Whitbread Gold Label Barley Wine is available in Sainsburys, Waitrose, Morrisons and some local Co-ops.
Most of the popular brands from the 60s and 70s are still available in the supermarkets. I have seen Skol, Carlsberg, Carling (without the Black Label) and Harp.
Mild has continued to decline in popularity and there are few available now. Whitbread still do canned draught mild and you can also get Sainsbury's own brand.
Add your comments on 60s and 70s beer
Cheers!" Jules 14/03/2011
Thanks" Tom 14/08/2011
These were beautiful ales that went well mixed with Bitter or Mild;
Dear oh Dear changing times and not for the better" Stevie D 18/01/2012
I think my first sip of real ale may have been a pint of Wethereds in the Crown and Treaty, Uxbridge. In about 1976. I would have been about 15 (But I must have looked older in my fashionable platform soles)" Ian Bucket-Belly 23/03/2012
"Real Ale".......A touch of the "Kings clothes" methinks." Ray 18/04/2012
A Chinese is lager over bitter in Birkenhead/Wirral and is known as a Golden over the water in Liverpool" Alfie 17/07/2012
I did work in a pub briefly which sold Trophy and Whit Best, and compared with the ales I now drink (draught, bottled and home-brewed) I seem to remember a bit of a lack of taste... Apologies if this is heresy!" Ian 03/08/2012
Anyway, that's enough ranting for one day - my friend Justin's just arrived with some sushi and a DIVINE Sauvignon Blanc........." roger 18/10/2012
However, the word "crat" (now "krat") also originated at one of these modern ale festivals." Lemmy 04/01/2013
and had wothington e
in youth i recall the advert was
WORTHING E THE BEER NATURAL BEER IS HERE
CAN YOU CONFIRM" mallsmith 11/01/2013
Has anyone got one the could be made available for us to refit in the hole in the Wardroom Cabinet. Cheers. Mike, one of the volunteers working onboard." Mike Fleet. 22/02/2013
1970 was my Time, A Great Pint of Ind Coope Mild followed by a few More,They then brought out Drum Mild, Cost More of Course, Coolers, Hate the Dam things, If I want an Ice berg I know where to go, but not in my Pint, Ind Coope was my favourite, Mild or Brown & Mild, Double D Came out a few years later, Ok ish, Get the Booze Back in Pubs not Corner Shops ect,, As for Courage back then,Well you needed Courage to drink it,
Lets Wind the Clock Back, I will even drink a Pint of Courage
We went to the Courage Brewer, Thats the old one years ago, had a Tour ect then to the Bar, Yes it was Courage But We drunk it Dry that Night, Had to leave at 10.30 Crazy
Good old days though" Tony 03/09/2013
My tipple of choice was MacKuen's Scotch Ale or a Guinness. back then." Bob 07/10/2013
I have seen it in some pubs around Oxford. Greene King also brew a cask conditioned mild, Green King XX Mild. I haven't tried it though. See http://www.greeneking.co.uk/index.asp?pageid=75 for more details. Best regards" Steven 20/11/2013
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